DOMINO DF (DominoF 11) is a sensitive mode which, due to its incremental frequency keying and thanks to its interleaved multiple tones sets, is easy to tune and is few sensitive to interference and ionospheric effects. The minimum ratio Signal-to-Noise ratio is about - 12 dB.
Creators : Con Wassilieff ZL2AFP and Murray Greenman ZL1BPU in 2004
Baud rate : 10.766
Speed : 40 wpm (by deleting the synchronization characters)
Modulation : IFK (Incremental Frequency Keying) 16 tones but with two tone sets (J1 and J2) in alternance so as to reduce the ISI (InterSymbol Interference) and to allow a quick synchronization. The total number of tones being 16 separated by a frequency offset (FO) equal to the baud rate, each set has 8 interleaved tones separated by 2 DF:
O O ...J1
O O ...J2
Note : in fact, 18 tones (2 x 9) are used to limit the rotations.
A character is composed of 2 symbols of 3 bits each, each symbol being sent on a tone set (first symbol on J1 then second symbol on J2).
Reception mode : sensible to the side (USB or LSB), USB is recommended
Character set : 62 characters (lower case, numbers and some punctuation) + an error reset character (6 bits long characters) + a synchronization character
Shape of pulse : rectangular
Space between tones : 10.766 Hz
Bandwidth : 213 Hz,
Demodulation : non-coherent,
Synchronization : for the 3 bits symbols, using the signal. For the symbol order, thanks to a block of 4 synchronization characters sent after 12 characters standard.
Convolution code : no
Interleaving : no
Offset tolerance : 65 Hz. This is the big advantage of this IFK mode which can accomodate a mistuning inferior or equal to +/- 65 Hz.
Drift tolerance : 20 Hz/mn (depending on signal the signal-to-noise ratio)
Note : inside the band limited by the offset tolerance, the drift tolerance is superior to 200 Hz/mn
Pmean/Ppeak : 1
Lowest S/N : -12 dB
Note : it exists 2 other Domino modes (not decoded by Multipsk) at 7.8125 and 15.625 bauds. They are conceived in the same way.
+Great signal to noise ratio
-Handles multipathing very well.
-Can't change bandwidths or tone amount
-Not used very much
+Good speeds for ragchewing
+good for lower bands where other type of modes fail more.
Mode Audio Sample
FFT Window Screenshot
VIDEO OF AN ACTUAL DOMINO QSO HERE